Bushfire Safety

See also My bushfire safety background and Links to articles

It’s not only highly flammable cladding that’s hazardous to highrise – or any home. Especially those that are bushfire vulnerable

Numerous internal-use building materials will cause fire to move fast through a house. Many give off toxic fumes that can kill in less than a minute, even if only smouldering.

Commonly used furnishings and fittings that give off lethal fumes include the polyurethane filling in cushions, treated pine, and some internal wall linings.

Furnishing fabrics that accelerate flame include cotton, rayon, linen, and acrylic; the plastic coating of fibreglass fabrics; nylon, terylene, dacron and other synthetics; polyurethane foam padding; synthetic carpets.

Floor and wall linings that can halt or hold up fire include brick, tiles and slate, good quality lino and vinyl.

Furnishing materials that burn and/or spread fire more slowly include pure, untreated, heavy quality wool and natural leather.
http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/flammable-cladding-found-on-50-per-cent-of-new-melbourne-highrises-20160216-gmvrmo.html

https://www.facebook.com/Bushfire-Safety-Awareness-130977566959410/?ref=bookmarks


A planning expert has warned that houses in  bushfire-ravaged towns should not be rebuilt   http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-01-06/bushfire-ravaged-towns-should-not-be-rebuilt-expert-warns/8166178

House loss couple

Anyone planning to build, rebuild, retrofit or repair home to be bushfire resistant needs to be aware of the failings in the relevant building regulations (Australian Standard Construction of Buildings in Bushfire Prone Areas).

They  cannot be relied upon to provide bushfire safety.
These are some of their extraordinary omissions and inclusions:

  • Ignore the roof/ceiling space. Of the three core vulnerable areas: subfloor, windows and roof space, this is the most dangerous aspect: not least because it is unseen.
  • Stipulate brick for the worst danger categories. Look at all the brick houses destroyed on Black Saturday.
  • Allow brick veneer. Air space between external and internal wall linings encourages upward spread of fire
  • Stipulate that timber cladding must be ‘fire retardant’-which is pointless: the danger to houses only comes from the outreach of flames if vegetation is allowed to grow close.
  • Stipulate metal frames, known to buckle under intense heat.
  • Allow polyurethane for insulation -a killer that gives off cyanide gas within 30 seconds of smouldering
  • Ignore the type of internal wall linings –though many give off toxic gases when burning
  • Ignore the type of water tank –plastic tanks melt in intense bushfires.
  • Ignore the type of farm fencing –metal picket posts survive and will keep the wiring upright.
  • Designate a site category the ‘flame zone’ – to allow home building anywhere near a ‘flame zone’, is homicidal.

The three core home destroyers
1. Embers, embers, embers. Not the fabled ‘sweeping flames’.
2. Flames – rarely, depends on your vegetation management.
3. Radiant heat – if ever, from closely adjacent building.

 The three core areas for ember protection
1 Roof/ceiling space
2. Windows
3. Subfloor

The three core areas for flame protection
1.Lessen nearby vegetation density and flammability
2. Increase distance between cladding and flammable vegetation.
3. Maintain spaced plants, fire resistant plants, cleared ground beneath plants.

The three core construction protections for houses
1. Clear roof space, insulate, ember-proofing potential entry points.
2. Cover windows with shutters or metal flywire
3. Cover subfloor gaps with metal flywire

To each core point add:
Thorough knowledge of what to do, when to do it, and why.

ESSENTIAL BUSHFIRE SAFETY TIPS is the ONLY publication for the householder that details all up-to-date known and proven factors of  involved in personal and home danger and safety  during bushfires and provides options for reacting to them. Every word has been checked and rechecked by senior CSIRO bushfire scientists.
It is endorsed by the Country Fire Authority, Victoria:
‘Truly an outstanding achievement and a book that certainly could help save lives within the community.: Click here http://www.publish.csiro.au/pid/6969.htm

Essential Bushfire Safety Tips 3rd cover


TRAVELLING SAFELY DURING BUSHFIRE WEATHER

Your car CAN protect you from a grassfire, MAY protect you from a very mild forest fire; WILL NOT protect you from a fierce forest fire.
Always carry a PURE WOOL BLANKET and nose filter for each passenger’s protection, and drinking water.
TRAVELLERS WHO HAVE DIED when confronted by grass fires would most likely have survived had they stayed in their cars.
car-on-feiry-road-1

NEVER drive through flames or smoke.
It is not heroic.  It is homicidal..

car-australia-victoria-cockatoo-ash-wednesday-fires-15a_19830321

Picture (c) Katherine Seppings

CAR REFUGE SAFETY depends on fire intensity, flame height, amount of vegetation, whether parked on clear ground or grass, beneath or away from trees, the distance of the car from flames, and whether the duration of flames themselves is less than 10 seconds.
GRASS FIRE FLAMES last 5–15 seconds (in the one spot) and the front passes quickly. So if a grass fire approaches you while travelling, you can be safe by staying in the car.
FOREST FIRE FLAMES can last five minutes (in the one spot) and for those who attempt to drive through fiery bush-lined tracks, the car can be death trap.
AS WITH HOUSES, cars burn down from the inside. When people die in cars they are killed by the fuel inside the car: fibreglass, hydraulic fluids, petrol, plastics, insulation, magnesium alloys, and toxins given off by them. Duco burns in 15 seconds on a car 4.5 metres from only 40 o, 3-metre high flames. Upholstery and trims can burn within one minute. The in tense heat inside the car forces people out – usually to their death from the radiant heat coming from the bushfire.
PETROL TANKS in good condition have miniscule chance of endangering you. They certainly won’t explode in the short sheltering time of grass or mild forest fire. Only faulty tanks have been known to explode.
FOR FULL DETAILS see chapters on protective travelling in THE COMPLETE BUSHFIRE SAFETY BOOK (acclaimed by fire authorities in Australia and overseas as the most comprehensive and authoritative book on the subject) http://www.randomhouse.com.au/search/?q=joan+webster&t
and/or its ready reference ESSENTIAL BUSHFIRE SAFETY TIPS (CFA endorsed: “An outstanding achievement …that could certainly help save lives within the community”).
http://www.publish.csiro.au/book/6969


Bushfire safe gardens – points to ponder

CORE DANGER/SAFETY FACTS OF FIRES IN VEGETATION:
• the more dense the vegetation, the more intense the fire.
• the more intense the fire, the more radiant heat, flames & ember shower
• the more radiant heat, flames & embers, the more danger to lives and homes

z Shrubs grown on garage -2

A dangerously cluttered garden

CORE ACTION TO TAKE TO INCREASE SAFETY
THE MORE RADIANT HEAT, FLAMES &EMBER SHOWER
• Have paths between house walls and plants.
• Thin out clutter. Space garden beds.
• Replace flammable mulch with granitic sand, pebbles, or road-metal crushings.
• Populate garden beds with low flammability succulents and vegetables.
• Replace rough barked eucalypts with smooth-barked trees.
• Replace highly flammable native plants with fire resistant species e.g. European deciduous
• Plant dense canopied European deciduous trees near, and on the firewind side of buildings. Such trees absorb sparks and embers and so can protect roof and walls.

Daylesford-Stony Creek Rd -parklike -Small

A well-prepared property, with uncluttered grounds. (Picture © Katherine E. Seppings.)

A protective garden (Picture by Katherine E. Seppings)

If you think that replacing ‘native’ gardens with introduced species spoils a fashionable environmental concept – think about whether it is better to spoil this than to spoil lives and townships by having a fire-welcoming garden.

THINK ABOUT THIS
We are an introduced species.
• Our livestock, our pets are introduced species.
• Roads and cars are foreign to the environment.
• Our houses are foreign to the environment.
• Our lifestyle is not ‘native’.
• Why ought their gardens be ‘native’?
• A ‘native’ garden does not keep your property ‘natural’. It keeps it endangered.
• Thoughtful planning, preparation, some changes, and regular maintenance is protective.

REMEMBER
• Bushfire can’t burn what you’ve cut back.
• It can’t burn bare earth or gravel paths.
• It can’t ignite trees if there’s nothing growing under them.
• Fire resistant plants can help keep bushfire at bay.
(The Complete Bushfire Safety Book has an eight-page list – some of which are ‘native’)


2015-12-26-lorne-bushfires

Extracts from the ‘Fireman Sam’ column, Fire Wise, October, 2016 – titled ‘Bushfire Attack Level (BAL): or is it baloney’.

Fireman Sam discusses the failings of the BAL requirements in general, and in particular the vulnerability, destruction, and rebuilding of homes at Wye River, Victoria, where many houses were burnt last summer.
Click to open Fireman-Sam-article-October-2016

My findings of these regulations:

Anyone planning to build, rebuild, retrofit or repair home to be bushfire resistant needs to be aware of the failings in the relevant building regulations (Australian Standard Construction of Buildings in Bushfire Prone Areas).
They  cannot be relied upon to provide bushfire safety.
These are some of their extraordinary omissions and inclusions. They:

  • Ignore the roof/ceiling space.
  • of the three core vulnerable areas: subfloor, windows and roof space, this is the most dangerous aspect: because it is unseen.
  • Stipulate brick for the worst danger categories,
  • Look at all the brick houses destroyed on Black Saturday.
  • Allow brick veneer
    • Air space between external and internal wall linings encourages upward spread of fire
  • Stipulate that timber cladding must be ‘fire retardant’-which is pointless:
  • the danger to houses only comes from the outreach of flames if vegetation is allowed to grow close.
  • Stipulate metal frames, known to buckle under intense heat.
  • Allow polyurethane for insulation.
  • a killer that gives off cyanide gas within 30 seconds of smouldering
  • Ignore the type of internal wall linings –     though many give off toxic gases when burning
  • Ignore the type of water tank – plastic tanks melt in intense bushfires.
  • Ignore the type of farm fencing –  metal picket posts survive and will keep the wiring upright.
  • Designate a site category the ‘flame zone’ – to allow home building anywhere near a ‘flame zone’, is homicidal.

TO HAVE A BUSHFIRE RESISTANT HOUSE, YOU NEED to first concentrate on lessening nearby vegetation density and flammability (which will reduce ember throw and flame reach) and then on ember proofing. The core areas for ember protection are subfloor, windows and roof/ceiling space. The core aspect of flame protection is cladding distance from flammable vegetation.

FULL DETAILS in the CFA endorsed ‘Essential Bushfire Safety Tips’ http://www.publish.csiro.au/pid/6969.htm


House loss couple

Houses matter afterwards.

TIME TO PREPARE FOR  BUSHFIRE SAFETY

Post-Black Saturday 2009 research by bushfire scientists found that very few of those who died had a comprehensive fire plan, and most had only started on safety preparations ‘in the hours before they thought a fire would hit’. They confirmed that bushfire tragedies are not due to ‘catastrophic’ weather, to lack of official warning, nor to your ‘staying’ or ‘going’ – but to apathy, ignorance, and confused understanding of what to do during a threat. Good bushfire safety preparation and knowledge is vital.

NOW IS A REALLY GOOD TIME TO:

  • Modify vegetation on your property.
  • Make and mend house and outbuildings.
  • Check your bushfire safety plan.

INSPECT THE GARDEN for clutter and flammability. Remove undergrowth and mow grass beneath trees – a tree can only ignite if such ‘kindling’ is beneath it. Replace highly flammable native plants and ‘fine fuel’ with fire retardant plants such as succulents and European deciduous trees. Move plants away from walls and windows. Flames can’t ignite cladding if it’s not being hugged by shrubs. In an un-cluttered garden, flames have to thin out; radiant heat has to die down, embers become sparse.

Daylesford-Stony Creek Rd -parklike -Small

A well-prepared property, with uncluttered grounds. (Picture © Katherine E. Seppings.)

WALK ROUND YOUR PROPERTY and note where embers could get in. Roof/ceiling space, windows and sub-floor are the main entry points. Almost all house ignitions during bushfire are caused by embers entering from these points and they then burn from the inside outwards, furniture and fittings first, frame and cladding last. Houses are only destroyed by Bushfire’s flames only destroy when flammable shrubs are allowed to grow against windows of flammable walls.

SPRINGTIME CHORES FOR SUMMER SAFETY

  • Clean out the roof void! Insulate above and below rafters.
  • Secure loose roof iron and fill nail holes.
  • Plug cracks in roof and cladding with fire resistant expandable epoxy-type filler.
  • Insulate wall cavities so burning debris can’t send flames up them.
  • Screen windows & subfloor with metal mesh for radiant heat & ember protection.
  • Shutter windows if vulnerable to violent winds.
  • Accumulate fire dousing facilities – from mops & buckets up.
  • Install and fill dedicated water tanks
  • Install low flow roof sprinklers if affordable.

PLANNING THE PERSONAL

  • Pack a Survival Kit containing pure wool blanket.
  • Prepare, plan and practice a thorough safety plan based on proven information.
    (See CFA endorsed Essential Bushfire Safety Tips for full details) http://www.publish.csiro.au/index.cfm

Core garden chores

CORE DANGER/SAFETY FACTS OF FIRES IN VEGETATION:
• the more dense the vegetation, the more intense the fire.
• the more intense the fire, the more radiant heat, flames & ember shower
• the more radiant heat, flames & embers, the more danger to lives and homes

CORE ACTION TO TAKE TO INCREASE SAFETY
• Have paths between house-walls and plants.
• Thin out clutter. Have spaces between garden beds.
• Replace flammable mulch with granitic sand, pebbles, or road-metal crushings.
• Populate garden beds with low flammability plants, succulents and vegetables. 
• Replace rough barked eucalypts with smooth-barked. 
• Replace highly flammable native plants with fire resistant species e.g. European deciduous
• Plant dense-canopied European deciduous trees on the firewind side of buildings. 
• European deciduous trees absorb sparks and embers and can protect roof and walls.
• Thoughtful planning, preparation, and regular maintenance saves homes and lives.

AUF62C~1

Paths between vegetation and walls protect cladding from flames and windows from radiant heat. (Picture (c) Katherine Seppings.)

Gardens-messy_20090308_3

Fine leaves + high flammability. Radiant from these shrubs would crack windows. (Picture (c) Katherine E. Seppings.)

FLAMMABITY FACTS
• Bushfire can’t burn what you’ve cut back. 
• It can’t burn bare earth or gravel paths. 
• It can’t ignite trees if there’s nothing growing under them. 
• Fire resistant plants in your garden increase your bushfire safety

 NATIVE GARDENS – THOUGHTS TO PONDER
• A politically correct native garden is an easily burned garden.
• A ‘native’ garden does not keep your property ‘natural’. It keeps it endangered.
• Introduced species of plants should not be scorned. They keep homes safer.
• We are an introduced species. Our lifestyle is not ‘native’. 
• Our houses are not ‘native’.
• Our livestock, our pets are introduced species. 
• Roads and cars are introduced species of danger to the environment.


How to burn off safely

2014-02-09 Craigebirn 1 No protective clothes

Escapes from badly managed burn-offs is the greatest cause of bushfires.

 See more at https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bw6f77jCDnW-M0R2WlV2OUhCNHc/view


Have you looked in your roof/ceiling space lately?
Ember ignition here during bushfires
is a major cause of house destructions.

Bendigo residents fighting fires.

Before it gets too hot, shine a torch in there.

Are ceiling and rafters coated with the accumulated dust of years? This is highly flammable. Are there rats’ or birds’ nest? Old papers? Clean it out! If you can’t physically do this yourself, there are firms that specialise in this. If you don’t have an inspection trapdoor, make one.

Crawl in and shine the torch up. Do pinpricks of light show through the roof? Bushfire embers could enter here. Solder or otherwise plug gaps in roofing metal; fasten and seal loose tiles.

These are extremely vital bushfire-protection chores. The ceiling space is very vulnerable. A tile or galvanised iron sheet lifted by strong wind, a nail hole, a gap in the eaves, can let in flying sparks and embers.

Historic home Wolta Wolta SA -webEven a spark can ignite roof dust and eventually ignite rafters. Slowly and unseen, fire builds up, gases erupt, and up goes the whole roof space. This can take hours.

It often starts after a fire front has passed, while the ember shower is still falling If shelterers are ignorant of what is happening above them, a flaming ceiling collapses in.

It often starts after a fire front has passed, while the ember shower is still falling If shelterers are ignorant of what is happening above them, a flaming ceiling collapses in.

House -historic dest embers in roof

The fire front had passed this South Australian historical home and the owners thought it had been spared. But embers had penetrated the ceiling space, unnoticed.

Too many bushfire deaths and house losses happen this way.

They need not.
* Embers can’t penetrate roofs if you have continuous metal sheeting and/or roof sprinklers. Best are low flow sprinklers. And have enough water to run them.
* Embers can’t penetrate roofs if you secure loose iron and fill nail holes.
* Fill cracks with Expanda Foam or a fire resistant expandable epoxy-type such as Nullifire.
* Insulate above and below rafters.
* Insulate with mineral wool, fibreglass batts or aluminium foil laminate.

ON THE DAY:
Keep inspection door open, with ladder against it with a torch, and water in knapsack or garden sprayers, handy just inside it. And, of course, wear protective clothing.


Hazard reduction inside the house

House destroyed -trees Ok -2

Houses are not reduced to a few centimetres of ash because of bushfire’s flames. Note the nearby trees are untouched by fire. They burn from the inside when embers enter and ignite the house’s contents. Furnishing materials can help impede fire spread.

FUEL REDUCTION IS NOT JUST FOR THE GARDEN.
YOUR FURNISHINGS ARE FUEL, TOO

Inside your house needs its own hazard reduction. The reason houses are reduced to a few centimetres of ash during a bushfire is not the ‘all-consuming’ flames of the bushfire – it is the burning of the house’s contents.

What happens when an unattended spark or ember from bushfire is blown inside a house, is that it smoulders, flares, and fire spreads through furniture and furnishings, clothes and kitchen contents, papers and plastics and fly-sprays and cleaning fluids. Smouldering wall linings, fittings and bench tops can give off lethally toxic gases. If no-one douses the entered embers, the fire moves through the house and structure until only ash and twisted metal remain.

Be aware of which aspect of your house makes it most vulnerable to destruction: not the cladding, the contents!

DANGEROUS FURNISHING FABRICS:
Cotton, rayon, linen, and acrylic; the plastic coating of fibreglass fabrics; nylon, terylene, dacron and other synthetics; polyurethane foam padding; synthetic carpets.

PROTECTIVE FURNISHING FABRICS:
Pure, untreated, heavy quality wool; natural leather; good quality vinyl; good quality lino; tiles and slate floors. http://www.publish.csiro.au/pid/6969.htm

Houses destroyed -trees OK - aerial- 2

Bushfire’s sweeping flames did not destroy this group of homes. The surrounding trees are unburnt. Unchecked ember ignition of house contents causes this type of destruction.

Learn more from Essential Bushfire Safety Tips. Preview at:
http://www.publish.csiro.au/pid/6969.htm   and
The Complete Bushfire Safety Book. Preview at:
www.randomhouse.com.au/books/joan-webster/the-complete-bushfire-safety-book-9781740510349.aspx


CAR SAFETY DURING BUSHFIRES

From Grassfires Cheney and Sullivan wanneroo road 4

Your car CAN protect you from a grassfire, MAY protect you from a very mild forest fire; WILL NOT protect you from a fierce forest fire. Travellers who have died when confronted by grass fires would most likely have survived had they stayed in their cars.

Some people fear that the petrol tank will explode, but this has been found to happen only to faulty tanks. If your petrol tank is in good condition there is little chance of this danger. It certainly won’t explode in the short sheltering time of grass or mild forest fire.

Safe refuge in a car depends on the intensity of the fire (which depends on the amount of vegetation), flame height, the distance of the car from flames, the length of time nearby flames persist, whether the care is parked beneath trees or away from them, and whether it is on grass or clear ground.

Grass fire flames last 5–15 seconds (on the one spot) and the front passes quickly. So if a grass fire approaches you while travelling, you can be safe by staying in the car. Forest fire flames can last five minutes (on the one spot), so anyone attempting to drive through fiery bush-lined tracks can find the car is death trap.

As with houses, cars burn down from the inside. When people die in cars they are killed by the fuel inside the car: fibreglass, hydraulic fluids, petrol, plastics, insulation, magnesium alloys, and toxins given off by them. Duco burns in 15 seconds on a car 4.5 metres from only 40 o, 3-metre high flames. Upholstery and trims can burn within one minute. The in tense heat inside the car forces people out – usually to their death from the radiant heat coming from the bushfire.

Always carry drinking water and a pure wool blanket for each passenger when travelling in rural areas in the summer.

For more details, there are chapters on protective travelling during the bushfire season in both The Complete Bushfire Safety Bookwww.randomhouse.com.au/books/joan-webster/the-complete-bushfire-safety-book-9781740510349.aspx
and Essential Bushfire Safety Tips http://www.publish.csiro.au/pid/6969.htm

Like fb ‘Bushfire Safety Awareness’
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Bushfire-Safety-Awareness/130977566959410


Four people have died in recent bushfires. All were in cars, driving while the fire was in their area. Whatever the reason for being on the road during a bushfire, it is far too often a fatal decision.


Sheltering safely

Authorities constantly warn: ‘ Driving in any bushfire is extremely dangerous and can be result in death’. At the same time, the same authorities cause confusion on this matter with contradictory messages.

A fire authority recently advised people in the affected areas: ’If the way is clear, leave immediately’. A way may look clear at the moment of setting out, but there is no guarantee that will stay that way. Embers blown from fires in the area can quickly ignite roadside vegetation, emitting killing radiant heat. Tree branches can fall and block the road. Obscuring, eye-shutting smoke can cause crashes. By the time an area is affected, it is too dangerous to leave.

It is such misleading messages that lead people to think they are doing the right, safe, thing and to act as did a farmer who told the ABC: ‘We got our family out of the house when we realised that our property was in the line of the fire yesterday.’ This is not the right, safe, thing. This is a perilous time to ‘get out’.

WHEN IT IS UNSAFE TO LEAVE – WHAT SHOULD YOU ACTUALLY DO?
First rule: Wear protective clothing. Have an emergency pure wool blanket. Drink water.

IF YOU CANNOT SHELTER IN A BUILDING
* Shelter behind a wall, beside a large bare-ground, fire resistant tree; in nor beside a car; in a dam (if no vegetation is near either) or crouch beneath a pure wool blanket on a bare or already burnt area.

IF YOU CAN SHELTER IN A BUILDING:
* Shut off gas and electricity at the mains.
* Put pets inside: dogs on leash, cats in covered cages.
* Take in outdoor furniture, doormats, hanging baskets, plastic pot plants.

WHEN YOU ARE INSIDE A BUILDING:
* Make sure all doors and windows are securely shut.
* Turn off air conditioners; cover their internal vents.
* If windows are unshuttered, cover with pure wool blankets, heavy quality quilts, foil or wet towels. Move flammable furniture away from windows.
* Wear protective clothing, nose mask, drink often, have pure wool blankets handy and cool off when possible
* Watch the conditions outside through a small window or peephole. When flaring shrubs have blackened it’s safe to go out again. Burning tree trunks do not generally emit killing radiant heat.

ACTIVE SHELTERERS (DEFENDERS)
* Take hose, sprayers and ladder inside with you.
* Fill bath & troughs with water, immerse towels, roll up and place at door gaps and window ledges. Plug keyholes with play dough, blue-tack or soap.
* Fill containers (e.g. garden sprayers) with water; put these, with dippers, mops etc, in each room.
* Watch for invading embers. Particularly in the ceiling space, through windows, gaps under doors. Quickly spray or hit with wet mop any sparks, embers or smouldering furnishings.
* If any ignition cannot be extinguished, close the door of that room.
* Always be able to see and have easy access to a door that open to outside.
* Never go outside during a flame front to douse an outside ignition.

PASSIVE SHELTERERS
* Close internal doors to limit fire spread if embers enter and ignite inside.
* Stay by a door that opens directly to outside.
* Put on protective clothing. Have a pure wool blanket.
* DO NOT shelter in an inner room. Not in the hallway. Not in the bath. If you shelter in ANY kind of inner room (no matter how many doors it has) you could be trapped. Embers may have ignited in ceiling space, sub-floor or wall cavities. Flaming walls or ceiling could collapse on you. Toxic fumes from smouldering cushions or wall linings could overcome you.
* Exit as soon as the potentially killing radiant heat from flames outside has died down.

HOW TO EXIT SAFELY
* Exit very carefully, preferably from a door that is sheltered from the wind (and therefore sparks and embers) and is unlikely to be ignited.
* Wear protective clothing & nose cover, cover yourself with your blanket, crouch, lower your eyelids and open the door gradually.


Stock safety during bushfire

    Some simple protective measures can make a huge difference to stock safety during bushfire. The simplest is to plough 6m bare earth strips on each side of  fence lines. This can be done in a lull between fire … Continue reading

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The aftermath of Lancefield escaped burn.

The Department of Environment, Land, Water  & Planning has asserted its commitment to working with communities to reduce the impact of planned burns on communities: ‘We aim … to plan our burns to put local communities first.’ For report, see ‘THE … Continue reading

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